The Amsterdam shelter synagogue
Duchan during shacharit on Shabbat in Snoge was introduced in Amsterdam around 1666 when Sabbatai Zevi was regarded to be the mashiach. The idea was to prepare the kohanim for the service after the upcoming rebuilding of the temple. When however it became clear that Sabbatai Zevi was a fake, the question arose: stop the Duchan or continue. Should we stop, because there was no reason for it (Haham Sasportas), or continue as it was started, and after all it is a mitsva (Haham Aboab). It was decided to continue with the Duchan on the condition that it would stop in case the continuation of the services would stop for whatever reason.
Comparable, Duchan on Shabbat during Musaph was introduced by the Ashkenazim in The Hague, but for a different reason (cholera epidemic, see Liber Amicorum voor Opperabijn A. Schuster, ISBN 90 323 0738 6, Assen 1971, pages 61-62). They applied a similar condition: continue until the Duchan would be missed once.
As a result of this condition, the Duchan in The Hague stopped after the war, but in Amsterdam the Duchan continued after the war. Why? (*)
This is thanks to the amazing courage of a small group of Amsterdam Jews living in hiding. On the second floor of his house in the Nieuwe Keizersgracht 33, Sal (Salomon) Mendes Coutinho held a minyan every Shabbat and Yom Tov. The services in this “shelter synagogue” started in the fall of 1943. The last service was on liberation day, the Shabbat of 5 May 1945. As the minyan continued the whole war, first in the Snoge, and when that became impossible, in hiding, we have the Duchan till this very day.
The non Jewish artist Anton Witsel (1911-1977) who lived on the street level, made two drawings to document these services. These drawings are exhibited in the ma’amad (boardroom) of the community. They are dated 27 September 1944 (Yom Kippur) and 8 October 1944 (hosha’ana rabba). We blow the shofar during the hosha’anot. This explains why there is a shofar on this drawing. One of the attendees was rabbi Yehoshua Neuwirth, the author of the famous and very important book שמירת שבת כהלכתה, first published in 1965.
The Snoge shows we survived the inquisition. These drawings show we survived the holocaust.
Not related to this, but important to note is that Sal and his wife Liesje (Elisabeth), next to the shelter synagogue on the second floor, had a mikva in the basement, organized taharot (washing of the dead) and buried Jews which died in hiding during the war.
The four rabbanim are:
Apparently they were not aware of the fact that Sarlouis and Frances were not alive anymore at that moment. Both died already in 1942.
list was found in an old "11-months
(*) Recent research (2021-5781) carried out by Rabbi Serfaty as a result of the lockdown of services from 21 March till 3 July 2020; (15 weeks and 18 parasot) due to the Corona pandemic revealed that there is no evidence for this condition other than the oral tradition in the Cohen Paraira family. Rabbi Serfaty therefore ruled to continue the Duchan after the reopening. He wrote an extensive responsa (שו"ת) on this (see also an English summary). Further, he proposed that as off the Corona pandemic, Duchan should also be done on Rosh Chodesh.
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